Nicaragua 8-2015


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Published: July 8th 2016
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8-23-15 Toi thuc day khoang 3;45AM de chuan bi ra xe bus di Nicaragua. Xe chay luc 5:30AM. Di khoang 14hrs de den Nicaragua.

Nicaragua rong 129km2. Bang 1/3 Vietnam. Co dan so la 5 trieu dan bang 1/17 so dan Vitenam. Nhu vay dan song thua thot hon Vietnam. Thu do la Managua. Trung binh moi dau nguoii kiem duoc $1,200/nam. Mot trong nhung nuoc ngheo nhat Nam My. Dung tien Codobas. $1US=18 Codobas nam 2009 va bang 27 Codobas luc toi den 8-2015. Nhu vay tien Nicaragua bi mat gia nhieu vi tinh hinh chanh tri va kinh te bat on.

Nguoi Tay Ban Nha den day vao nam 1502 va dat ten cho nuoc nay la Nicaragua theo ten ho la Lago De Nicaragua. Nguoi Tay Ban NHa den day vi vung nay la vi the tot cho thuong mai vi co giong song San Juan chay tu ho Nicaragua ra Caribbean sea.My va Anh cung thich vung nay vi co the di tu bien Atlantic ra Caribbean sea de dang trong thoi ky tim vang o California. Nicaragua doc lap tu Tay Ban Nha nam 1821. Sau do mot thoi gian ngan thuoc ve Mexico tu nam 1821 den 1823. Hoan toan doc lap 1838.

Nam 1893 Zelaza la president cua nuoc nay. Ong ta chong My bang cach co dong cho Nhat va Duc khai thac Canal tai day va khong cho My lam viec nay. Do do My tao nen nhom doi lap va force Zelaza tu chuc. Cuoi cung Zelaza tu chuc. Dau nhung nam 1900 My anh huong sau dam chanh tri tai nuoc Nicaragua bang cach lap nen chanh phu ung ho My tai day de roi chanh phu nay cho My co toan quyen lam Canal o NIcaragua. Nhung My khong muon lam tai day ma lam o Panama thuan tien hon vi My khong tin tuong va su on dinh chanh tri tai day hon la su on dinh doi song chanh tri tai Panama nen Quoc hoi My quyet dinh xay Canal tai Panama. Mac dau My khong xay o day nhung My cung khong muon de bat cu nuoc nao lam Canal vung nay.Nam 1925 Sandino la President chong su anh huong cua MY. Lan nua My lap National Guard thay cho US marines rut lui khoi Nicaragua nam 1933 va duoc lanh dao boi Somoza. Sau do Somoza dung muu giet chet Sandino va cai tri nuoc Nicaragua den 43 nam. Somoza dac cu tong thong nam 35 tuoi, co luc la president co luc la nguoi dung ben trong de dieu khien tong thong bu nhin do ong tao nen. Tong thong Somaza co 3 nguon suc manh: kinh te manh cua Nicaragua, luc luong quan doi va su ung ho cua My. Somoza tham nhung chiem dat dai lam cua rieng ma so dat nay lon bang ca nuoc El Salvador. Somoza ung ho MY va de My dung dat nuoc nay lam tien don chong nha cam quyen doc tai cua Guatemala va Cuba. Vi doc tai nen tao nhieu ke thu, Somoza bi am sat chet nam 1956 , dua con trai truong duoc quoc hoi chi dinh len thay cai tri den nam den 1979. Trong thoi gian nay co nhieu nhom doi lap chong lai su doc tai cua gia dinh tri Somoza trong do co Carlos Fonseca., lanh tu sinh vien luc bay luc bay gio, lap nen phong trao goi la Sandinista National Liberation Front hay FSLN( Frente Sandinista De Liberation National).

Tran dong dat kinh hoang xay ra vao nua dem 12-23-1972 lam 6000 nguoi chet . The gioi do tien vao cuu tro nhung tien nay vao tay cua Somaza nen tao nen phong trao chong doi manh liet. 2 nhom lon chong doi la FSLN lanh dao boi Carlos Fonseca, la lanh tu sinh vien, va Union Democratica de Liberation lanh dao boi Pedro Chamorro, la chu nhat bao tung viet bao chong doi che do doc tai Somoza. Thang 12-1974 nhom FSLN bat coc cac cap lanh dao cua Somoza va doi chanh phu dua tien chuoc. Fonseca bi chanh quyen Somoza am hai nam 1976. Nam 1978 Chamorro bi giet. Ca nuoc dung len dinh cong chong doi. FSLN voi su ho tro cua dan chung, cac nuoc Latin America va Europe dung len tien chiem tung thanh pho trong dat nuoc Nicaraqgua. Sau cung tien vao thu do Managua 7-1979. Somaza tu chuc va tron khoi Nicaragua va sau nay bi am sat boi thanh vien thuoc FSLN o Paraguay. FSLN di vao thanh pho voi chien thang ngay 7-19-1979. Nhom FSLN va Violeta Chamorro, qua phu cua Pedro Chamorro lap nen 5 thanh vien tam thoi cai tri nuoc nay. Nhung khong bao lau ba Violeta tu chuc vi thay FSLN muon nam tron quyen hanh. Nhom FSLN tung dung len doi su tu do binh dang va khi nam duoc quyen hanh trong tay thi lai co khuynh huong doc tai. Bay gio con lai 3 thanh vien nam duoi su coordinator cua thanh vien FSLN la Daniel Ortega. My muon anh huong den nuoc nay nen President Carter vien tro 75 trieu cho chanh phu moi nay duoi thoi Tong thong Daniel Ortega . Nhung may nam sau 1980 My thay Nga va Cuba vao Nicaragua va chanh phu Sandinitas bat dau cung cap vu khi cho nhom rebels o El Salvador, mot nuoc lang gieng, ma chinh My dang vien tro chanh quyen El Salvador de tieu diet nhom rebel nay, nen My duoi thoi Tong thong Reagan thang 1-1981 cham dut vien tro cho FSLN va ung ho nhom chong lai FSLN thanh lap o Honduras va Costa Rica duoc goi la CONTRAS. Da so nhom nay thuoc quan doi xua cua Somoza ngay truoc. My dat can cu tai Honduras, mot nuoc cung bien gioi voi Nicaragua va My de doa se invade Nicaragua. Nga va Cuba gia tang ung ho cho FSLN toi $700 trieu nam 1987. CIA lap ke hoach gai min cac hai cang cua Nicaragua, noi ma tau Nga va Cuba dua do vien tro den, den noi My bi dua ra toa an quoc te va bi cam doan lam chuyen nay. Bau cu nam 1984 va Daniel Ortega tai dac cu. Daniel Ortega hien la Tong Thong nuoc Nicaragua hom nay, nam 2015. Nam 1985 My phong toa kinh te Nicaragua va yeu cau cac quoc gia khac cung lam nhu vay. Phong toa kinh te keo dai 5 nam. Quoc hoi My bat bo vien tro cho Contras. Tong Thong Regan, qua CIA, tiep tuc vien tro bi mat cho Contras bang cach dung tien ban vu khi cho Iran de vien tro bi mat cho Contras. Viec nay bi bai lo tao nen tai tieng luc bay gio goi la Iran-Contra-Afffair.

Sau do tong thong nuoc Costa Rica Osca Sanchez dung len dang sep hoa binh cho vung Trung My va cuoi cung hiep uoc ky 7-1987 giua Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Guatemala va Honduras. Tong Thong Sanchez cua Costa Rica duoc giai Nobel hoa binh ve viec nay. KInh te Nicaragua sau do lai tri tre, that nghiep nhieu va xa hoi khung hoan. Ba Violeta Chamorro tung hop tac voi Sandinasta chong lai chanh quyen doc tai Sumoza, bay gio thanh lap dang Union Nacional Opositora (UNO) chong lai chanh phu cua Sandinista. My ung ho nhom nay va hua se ngung cam van neu ba Chamorro thang cu . Voi tien ung ho cua My Ba Chamorro thang cu. Ba Chamorro nham chuc tong thong . La vi tong thong dan ba dau tien o Nam My va la vi tong thong dan ba thu 2 dau tien o Western Hemisphere. My ngung cam van va vien tro My va cac nuoc bat dau do vao Nicaragua. Ba Chamorro khong lam cho nuoc Nicaragua tien trien. Nam 1996 dan chung bau cho Aleman va Ortaga bi that cu . Bau cu nam 2006 giua Aleman va Ortaga xay ra. Dan chung ung ho Aleman nhung su viec xay ra: Aleman bi dau tim mat 4 thang truoc ngay bau cu de roi Orterga tro nen doc dien va tro thanh tong thong mac dau chi co 36% dan chung bau cho ong. De roi Ortaga tro nen tong thong Nicaragua .

Nam 2011 Orterga duoc dac cu lan nua va 2016 se co bau cu tong thong.



Truong hop tuong tu xay ra o Vietnam. Vi so su banh truong cua che do cong san do Trung Cong va Lien So lan rong o Dong Nam A, My da dua co van vao mien Nam Vietnam vao cuoi nhung nam 1950 va cho quan doi vao dau nhung nam 1960. Chanh phu Ngo Dinh Diem chong lai su anh huong cua My nen Tong Thong Kennedy luc bay gio , qua CIA, da tim cach giet anh em TT Ngo Dinh Diem de dua nguoi ung ho My la Dai Tuong Duong Van Minh len thay de de lam theo quyen loi cua My. De roi quan doi My o ac vao Nam Viet Nam de ngan chan su xam lang co che do cong san tu mien Bac ma Trung Cong va Lien So huong dan. My lam viec nay vi quyen loi cua My, va vi an ninh cua Hoa Ky. Neu de mien Nam mat vao tay cong san thi cong san se tu do banh truong den Dong Nam A trong do ca Thai Lan va Cambodia. Do la the quan binh quyen luc ma My phai lam. Nam 1972 Tong Thong My Nixon den Bac Kinh lan dau tien sau nhieu nam cach dut lien he ngoai giao. Sau do su lien he Bac KInh va Hoa Ky tro nen tot dep. The quan binh quyen luc nghien ve Hoa ky de roi My khong con lo so nhieu ve su lon manh cua khoi cong san lam hai den an ninh Hoa Ky. Tu do My bat dau nghi su hien dien cua My o Vietnam ngan chan su banh truong cua Cong san khong con can thiet nua. Va My bat dau rut lui khoi Vietnam de mien Nam mot minh chong lai 2 khoi cong san lon Trung Cong va Lien So thi lam sao mien nam khang cu noi. De roi mien nam mat vao tay cong san thang 4 -1975.

Nhung nam gan day kinh te Trung Cong lon manh sau nhung nam ngheo doi cua 1970s nho vao mo cua cho cac nuoc Tay Phuong do vao lap hang xuong va cac hang xuong nuoc ngoai loi dung nhan cong re o Trung Congo ac vao Trung Cong. Trung Cong di den giau manh nho vao hoat dong kinh ke cua cac nuoc khac tren chinh dat nuoc cua Trung Cong. Trong su banh truong lon manh tam bo do, Trung Cong tuong minh la mot cuong quoc de roi co y do xam lang cac nuoc lang gieng trong do co Vietnam. Mot khi co su bat on xay ra o Trung Cong thi cac nuoc the gioi se rut cac co xuong ve thi Trung Cong se hong chan.

Tinh trang hien tai la Trung Cong lan dau tien vuot qua My ve tong san luong quoc gia cao hon My. Nghia la Trung Cong lan dau tien vuot qua MY tro thanh mot nuoc giau manh nhat the gioi trong nhat thoi. My se khong de viec nay xay ra va tu do My bat dau tro lai Dong Duong de ngan chan su banh cua Trung Cong. My vao Vietnam lan nua, hop tac voi ke thu ngay xua de chong lai Trung Cong nhu My da tung hop tac voi ke thu o Nicaragua de chong lai chanh phu chong lai quyen loi cua My.

Tro lai chuyen di. Toi den Managua thu do cua Nicaragua khoang 8 gio toi. Toi muon taxi di thanh toi hotel cach bus station 3km.

8-24-15 Toi muon xe de di den San Jorge noi co pha de di qua dao Ometepe nam giua ho Lago de Nicaragua. Ho nay la ho lon nhat Trung My. Tren duong di toi ghe qua National Park volcan Masaya . Den Vocano nay rat de bang cach lai xe vao cong va di thang toi volcano. Toi muon ngua di len dinh cua Volcano.





Sau do toi di thang den San Jorge va di chuyen pha luc 4 gio den qua dao Ometepe. Dao Ometepe co 35,000 nguoi song. Dao nay tao thanh boi 2 ngon nui lua la Conception va Maderas. Conception la ngon nui symmetrical rat dep. Can bang nhu ngon nui Fiji o Nhat. Ngon nui Maderas cung vay. Ngon nui Conception cao 1610m va Maderas cao 1394m. Lava chay ra tu 2 ngoc nui nay tao thanh hon dao Ometepe. Nui Ometepe con active . Nui nay phun cuoi cung nam 1957.

Ferry dua toi den dao nay luc 5:15Pm. Toi muon khach san va loi dung troi con sang nen toi lai xe di vong quanh dao. Den cuoi duong cua mot phan dao la troi da toi, khong den duong nen toi tro ve khach san. Truoc khi di toi co nho nguoi quan ly muon dum toi nguoi tour guide de dua chung toi leo nui ngay hom sau luc 5 gio sang.





5-25-15 Toi thuc day luc 4AM va cho nguoi tourguide dua chung toi di. Den 5AM tour guide den. Toi lai xe dua tour guide theo su huong dan cua tour guide den chan nui cua ngoc nui Conception. Toi de xe duoi chan nui va chung toi bat dau leo nui luc 5:254AM. Tro i bat dau sang. Tung dan chim bay hat rat ngoan muc. Toi leo len den giua ngon nui mat khoang 2 tieng thi tro lai vi toi phai di ve ferry de tro ve dat lien, va lai theo nguoi tour guide thong thuong nguoi ta di den do thoi vi neu di them nua den dinh nui mat khong 6 tieng va toi khong co thi gio lam chuyen do. Theo nguoi tour guide tren dinh nui co platform nhin toan dao.







Toi tro ve ferry vua dung gio de ferry chay ve dat lien. Den dat lien chung toi di den ngon nui lua thu hai ten la Volcan Mombacho. Theo nguoi tour guide ngon nui lua nay khac voi ngon nui Masaya la ngon Masaya lava tu trong long nui phun ra va chay doc theo suon nui. Con o day lave va rock phun ra thang len khong va rot xuong 2 ben suon nui.

Mobacho cao 1345m. Toi den day khoang 12;30Pm va ho cho biet khong con Phuong tien cho toi len nui. O day khac voi volca Masaya la phai di xe cua park len nui vi duong di rat kho.. Tuy nhien sau do ho noi co xe vi co nhieu torurist den muon len nui. Xe cho chung toi len tram cuoi cung de tu do toi cung tour guide di vao rung theo con duong da lam san. Dac biet rung o day cay coi rat day dac. Khac voi rung o Guatemala hay o Hunduras ma toi da di. That day dac va day cay coi xanh toi rat dep mat va toi chua tung thay rung nau day dac nhu vay. Dac biet la rat am uoc co le vi the ma rang rat xanh va day dac.





Dac biet nua la o day khong co muoi vi muoi khong the o do cao nhu vay. Chung toi vao rung tren ngon nui lua di nguoc chieu vi chung toi muon thay con thu ma chung toi chua tung thay la con Sloth. Thu nay thuong nam o tren cay va di chuyen rat cham chap. Chung toi thay 2 con Slothes dagh nam tren cay cay. Sau do chung toi di theo con duong mon ra den view point nhin xuong ho nuoc Nicaragua.

Tu dinh nui nhin xuong ho Nicaragua va port Genada voi khoang 15 hon dao nho rat dep. Vi vao tre nen toi khong xem duoc het cac noi. 4Pm chung toi phai len xe tro ra tram kiem soat de ra khoi khu rung.

Toi lai xe ve khach san tra xe ve ngu cho hom sau di ve lai san Pedro.

8-26-15 Toi thuc day luc 4 gio sang de sua soan ra tram xe bus di ve San Pedro Sula. Toi di den front desk de danh thuc nguoi receptionist de dua toi ra xe bus. Toi qua toi nho anh ta danh thuc toi day luc 4:45am ma bay gio toi phai danh thuc anh ta day. Tren duong di den bien gioi Guatemala, toi con 200 Cordobas tien Nicaraga, toi lay ra mua het peacan nut ba ban hang mung qua lo ra mat. Khi toi buoc len xe bus de di ba ta den chao toi. Toi suc dong vo cung vi su sung suong cua bat a khi kiem duoc dong tien de nuoi song gia dinh cua nguoi ngheo kho. Day chinh la ly do tai sao toi di bang duong xe bus de va cham vao doi song cua gioi ngheo kho de hieu doi song cua ho.

Toi di du lich , den nuoc nao toi thuong di xe bus dia Phuong de di vao doi song cua thanh phan ngheo kho cua dat nuoc ma toi den. Do la so thich cua toi. De roi toi nhan duoc nhung nu cuoi nhung tam long tu dat nuoc ma toi den. Hinh anh cua ba ban hang den chao toi se di theo toi trong suot hanh trinh cua toi hon la hinh anh cua sang trong cua nhan vien khach san chao don toi truoc khi toi roi hotel ve se xuat hien time to time trong doi minh.

Toi den San Pedro luc 7 gio toi. Toi den khach san toi o hon truoc de o dem cuoi truoc khi ve My.

8-27-2015 9 gio toi di taxi ra phi truong ve la My cham dut chuyen khac han voi cac chuyen di khac. Chuyen nay toi di bien va nui. Xuong bien snorkeling de huong ve dep cua sinh vat duoi bien va len nui de tan huong ve dep co tao hoa. Toi rat thich chuyen di nay hon la di den cac thanh pho de biet thanh pho moi, toi nuoc la chua tung den. Neu co su chon lua toi se chon di vung rung nui, bien ca hay toi thich di ngam thien nhien hon.


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