Background: Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives, but after the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey, mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy, enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union.
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Latest Blogs from Istanbul
- December 11th 2013 To Istanbul. Dec 7
by Words: 227 Photos: 0
- December 4th 2013 Are journey starts here!
by Words: 190 Photos: 9
- December 2nd 2013 November 24-25
by Words: 760 Photos: 4
- November 15th 2013 The joy of not standing out.
by Words: 489 Photos: 15
- October 23rd 2013 Istanbul..a must see!
by Words: 914 Photos: 17
- October 12th 2013 Prin orasul imperial
by Words: 387 Photos: 4
- October 1st 2013 Istanbul, Turkey
by Words: 768 Photos: 0
- September 24th 2013 Methuselah On The Move - Update 7 (Istanbul Interlude)
by Words: 940 Photos: 3
- September 19th 2013 The Dardanelles
by Words: 395 Photos: 0
- August 31st 2013 Istanbul
by Words: 920 Photos: 27
- August 17th 2013 Graveyard Shift
by Words: 1075 Photos: 0
- August 8th 2013 Istanbul- Taksim and South
by Words: 477 Photos: 14
- August 5th 2013 Istanbul
by Words: 725 Photos: 3
- August 4th 2013 Turkey part two!
by Words: 809 Photos: 0
- July 30th 2013 Istanbul - the place to go
by Words: 707 Photos: 4
- July 21st 2013 Sunday 21st July 2013 - Prince's Islands, Turkey
by Words: 307 Photos: 27
- July 19th 2013 19th July - 20th July - Bursa, Turkey
by Words: 264 Photos: 20
- July 14th 2013 14th July - 18th July 2013 İstanbul, Turkey
by Words: 538 Photos: 29
- July 8th 2013 Monday 8th July - 12th of July 2013 İstanbul, Turkey
by Words: 1200 Photos: 21
- July 7th 2013 Yesilkoy district, Istanbul.
by Words: 527 Photos: 99