View of the Lahore Fort
LAHORE, the cultural metropolis of Pakistan and the Dar-u,s-Sultanate of the Mughal Empire, is located in latitude 31-34 north and longitude 74-20 east and is 214 meters high from sea level. The foundation of the city is attributed mythical prince Lauh, son of Rama the hero of famous epic Ramayana. A small shrine known as the temple of lauh exists in the Lahore Fort near the Alamgiri Gate. The origin of Lahore is obscure and nothing is known about it before1021 AD when Mahmmud of Ghazna conquered it. Its first authentic historical mention is made by Al-biruni in his book Tarikhul Hind (1030-33 AD). Historian geographers and poets of many centuries between 1021 and 1708 AD have mentioned Lahore. In 1186 AD, Lahore was conquered by Shihab-ud-Din Muhammad Ghuri who assumed the title of Sultan of Delhi in 1193 AD since then it remained up to 1524 AD am important city under the rule of the Turks, the khalji, Tughluq, sayyid and Lodhi Sultan of Delhi. During Mughal period it became an important provincial capital.
Lahore however, attained magnificence during the Mughal rule from 1526 to 1721 Ad Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Akbar (1556=1605AD) built the present brick masonry fort on earlier
Badshi Mosque with garden
Completed in 1674 under Aurangzeb as the Mughal's final architectural fling
foundations in about 1566 AD. Nur-ud- Din Jahangir (1605-1627AD) and Shahab-ud-Din Shah Jahan (1627-1658AD) constructed palaces in the Fort and built tombs and gardens in the city. Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658-1707AD) built the grand Badshahi Mosque in front of the Alamgiri Gate. Lahore was ruled, from 1767to 1798 AD, by a coalition of three Sikh Chiefs, namely, Gujjar Singh, Lahna Singh and Sobha Singh. From 1799 to 1846 AD Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh and his short-lived descendants, after which the regime finally passed on the British, governed it. During the British rule from 1849to 1947 AD, buildings and roads were greatly multiplied and the city improved much.
Since the inception of Pakistan much valuable work towards the restoration and conservation of monuments has been done by the department of Archaeology.
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