St. Augustine, Florida - United States of America


Advertisement
United States' flag
North America » United States » Florida » St Augustine
September 21st 2003
Published: October 15th 2007EDIT THIS ENTRY

Total Distance: 0 miles / 0 kmMouse: 0,0

St Augustine, Florida - USA


[youtube=7cb81bX3Q_k]
St AugustineSt AugustineSt Augustine

St Augustine, Florida - United States of America

Sep 21, 2003









City official name :St Augustine
Founded date :
Location :Florida State
Elavation :? ft (? m)
Area :Approximately ? square miles (? km²).
Facts :St. Augustine is a city in St. Johns County, Florida, in the United States. It is the oldest continuously occupied European-established city, and the oldest port, in the continental United States. St. Augustine lies in a region of Florida known as The First Coast, which extends from Amelia Island in the north, south to Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Palm Coast. According to the 2000 census, the city population was 11,592; in 2004, the population estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau was 12,157. It is the county seat of St. Johns County.

St. Augustine was founded by the Spanish in 1565. The first Christian worship service held in a permanent settlement in the continental United States was a Catholic Mass celebrated in St. Augustine. A few settlements were founded prior to St. Augustine but all failed, including the original Pensacola colony in West Florida, founded by Tristán de Luna y Arellano in 1559, with the area abandoned in 1561 due to hurricanes, famine and warring tribes, and
St AugustineSt AugustineSt Augustine

St Augustine, Florida - United States of America
Fort Caroline in what is today Jacksonville, Florida, in 1564. The city was founded by the Spanish admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés on September 8, 1565. Menéndez first sighted land on August 28, the feast day of Augustine of Hippo, and consequently named the settlement San Agustín. Martín de Argüelles was born here one year later in 1566, the first child of European ancestry to be born in what is now the continental United States. This came 21 years before the English settlement at Roanoke Island in Virginia Colony, and 42 years before the successful settlements of Santa Fe, New Mexico, and Jamestown, Virginia. In all the territory under the jurisdiction of the United States, only settlements in Puerto Rico are older than St. Augustine, with the oldest being Caparra, founded in 1508, whose inhabitants relocated and founded San Juan, in 1521.

In 1586 St. Augustine was attacked and burned by Sir Francis Drake. In 1668 it was plundered by pirates and most of the inhabitants were killed. In 1702 and 1740 it was unsuccessfully attacked by British forces from their new colonies in the Carolinas and Georgia. The most serious of these came in the latter year, when
St AugustineSt AugustineSt Augustine

St Augustine, Florida - United States of America
James Oglethorpe of Georgia allied himself with Ahaya the Cowkeeper, chief of the Alachua band of the Seminole tribe to lay siege to the city.

In 1763, the Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War and gave Florida and St. Augustine to the British, an acquisition the British had been unable to take by force and keep due to the strong fort there. St. Augustine came under British rule and served as a Loyalist colony during the American Revolutionary War. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 gave the American colonies north of Florida their independence, and ceded Florida to Spain in recognition of Spanish efforts on behalf of the American colonies during the war.

Florida was under Spanish control again from 1784 to 1821. During this time, Spain was being invaded by Napoleon and was struggling to retain its colonies. Florida no longer held its past importance to Spain. The expanding United States, however, regarded Florida as vital to its interests. In 1821, the Adams-Onís Treaty peaceably turned the Spanish colonies in Florida and, with them, St. Augustine, over to the United States.

Florida was a United States territory until 1845 when it became a
St AugustineSt AugustineSt Augustine

St Augustine, Florida - United States of America
U.S. state. In 1861, the American Civil War began and Florida seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy. Days before Florida seceded, state troops took the fort at St. Augustine from a small Union garrison (January 7, 1861). However, federal troops loyal to the United States Government quickly reoccupied the city (March 11, 1862) and remained in control throughout the four-year-long war. In 1865, Florida rejoined the United States.

Spanish Colonial era buildings still existing in the city include the fortress Castillo de San Marcos. The fortress successfully repelled the British attacks of the 18th century, served as a prison for the Native American leader Osceola in 1837, and was occupied by Union troops during the American Civil War. It was removed from the Army's active duty rolls in 1900 after 205 years of service under five different flags. It is now the Castillo de San Marcos National Monument.

In the late 19th century the railroad came to town, and led by northeastern industrialist Henry Flagler, St. Augustine became a winter resort for the very wealthy. A number of mansions and palatial grand hotels of this era still exist, some converted to other use, such as housing
St AugustineSt AugustineSt Augustine

St Augustine, Florida - United States of America
parts of Flagler College and museums. Flagler went on to develop much more of Florida's east coast, including his Florida East Coast Railway which eventually reached Key West in 1912.

The city is a popular tourist attraction, for the rich Spanish Colonial Revival Style architectural heritage as well as elite 19th century architecture. In 1938 the theme park Marineland opened just south of St. Augustine, becoming one of Florida's first themed parks and setting the stage for the development of this industry in the following decades.

In addition to being a national tourist destination and the continental United States' oldest city, St. Augustine was also a pivotal site for the civil rights movement in 1964. Despite the 1954 Supreme Court act in Brown v. Board of Education, which ruled that the "separate but equal" legal status of public schools made those schools inherently unequal, St. Augustine still had only 6 black children admitted into white schools. The homes of two of the families of these children were burned by local segregationists while other families were forced to move out of the county because the parents were fired from their jobs and could find no work.

In 1963
St AugustineSt AugustineSt Augustine

St Augustine, Florida - United States of America
a “sit-in” protest at a local diner ended in the arrest and imprisonment of 16 young black protestors and 7 juveniles. Four of the children, two of whom were 16 year old girls, were sent to “reform” school and retained for 6 months. In 1964, the Ku Klux Klan abducted Dr. Robert B. Hayling, a local dentist, SCLC representative and NAACP coordinator then broke his right arm and fingers to prevent him from working (despite the fact that almost half of his clientele were white). In the summer of 1964 a massive non-violent direct action campaign was led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Ralph Abernathy, Andrew Young, and other major civil rights leaders intent on changing the horrific conditions of blacks in St. Augustine.

From May until July 1964 protestors endured abuse, beatings, and verbal assaults without any retaliation. By absorbing the violence and hate instead of striking back the protestors gained national sympathy and, it is thought, were the deciding factor in passing the 1964 Civil Rights Act. King planned nightly marches down King Street. The protestors were met by white segregationists and verbal and physical assault on the marchers that resulted in hundreds of arrests and
St AugustineSt AugustineSt Augustine

St Augustine, Florida - United States of America
jail sentences. Because of the huge numbers of demonstrators in the jail people were kept in a stockade during the day in the hot sun with no shade. When attempts were made to integrate the beaches of Anastasia Island demonstrators were beaten and driven into the water by police and segregationists. Some of the protestors could not swim and had to be saved from drowning by other demonstrators.

The demonstrations came to a climax when a group of black and white protesters jumped into the swimming pool at the Monson Motel, an entirely white hotel where several other protests had been held. In response to the protest the owner of the hotel, James Brock, who was a usually shy and passive man, was photographed pouring muriatic acid into the pool to get the protesters out. Photographs of this, and of a policeman jumping into the pool to arrest them, were broadcast around the world and became some of the most famous images of the entire Civil Rights Movement. The photos became fodder for communist countries, who used the images to discredit U.S. claims of democracy and freedom.






Additional photos below
Photos: 10, Displayed: 10


Advertisement

St AugustineSt Augustine
St Augustine

St Augustine, Florida - United States of America
St AugustineSt Augustine
St Augustine

St Augustine, Florida - United States of America
St AugustineSt Augustine
St Augustine

St Augustine, Florida - United States of America


Tot: 0.164s; Tpl: 0.026s; cc: 9; qc: 29; dbt: 0.0343s; 29; m:apollo w:www (50.28.60.10); sld: 4; ; mem: 6.6mb