Background: Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives, but after the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey, mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy, enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union.
Blogs from Troy
Latest Blogs from Troy
- May 7th 2013 CANAKKALE (GATEWAY TO TROY) TO KUSADASI, TURKEY--Tuesday, May 7, 2013
by Words: 864 Photos: 29
- August 7th 2012 Troy, His Horse & Pergamum!
by Words: 747 Photos: 17
- November 5th 2011 Pergamum and TROY!!
by Words: 832 Photos: 23
- August 18th 2011 Day 112: Troy & Pergamum
by Words: 247 Photos: 0
- April 10th 2011 Visits to Troy and Pergamon
by Words: 306 Photos: 2
- June 12th 2009 Babakale
by Words: 598 Photos: 5
- June 6th 2009 3 night countdown
by Words: 453 Photos: 0
- March 17th 2009 Two-timing Helen of Troy
by Words: 421 Photos: 9
- September 23rd 2008 Day 2-3: Selcuk, Turkey
by Words: 1336 Photos: 14
- May 10th 2008 I´m marrıed!
by Words: 371 Photos: 10
- August 28th 2007 Terrıfic Turkey
by Words: 949 Photos: 31