Background: Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives, but after the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey, mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy, enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union.
Photos from Trabzon
Blogs from Trabzon
Latest Blogs from Trabzon
- September 28th 2013 Joining the Brotherhood and other Tales
by Words: 1890 Photos: 36
- August 12th 2012 Where There Is No Other White Meat
by Words: 911 Photos: 27
- July 11th 2011 Trabzon - A Black Sea Surprise
by Words: 877 Photos: 89
- June 21st 2011 Trabzon & Sumela monastery
by Words: 702 Photos: 35
- August 17th 2009 Trabzon and the Sumela Monastery
by Words: 605 Photos: 21
- November 17th 2008 Trabzon I will depart from you
by Words: 1130 Photos: 16
- May 12th 2008 Sıghısoara, Romania- Trabzon, Turkey
by Words: 1195 Photos: 0
- May 5th 2008 Black Sea and back home... (long weekend pt. 3)
by Words: 1475 Photos: 14
- April 11th 2008 L'age de pierre
by Words: 886 Photos: 23
- May 16th 2007 Runde alaturka
by Words: 322 Photos: 3
- April 4th 2007 MOUNTAIN PASSES AND SNOWFIGHTS
by Words: 567 Photos: 21
- March 27th 2007 Across Turkey.
by Words: 300 Photos: 2
- March 27th 2007 Down to the coast.
by Words: 252 Photos: 2
- March 27th 2007 Turkey and into Georgia.
by Words: 480 Photos: 3
- March 9th 2007 Argo-nautiske mil
by Words: 307 Photos: 1
- March 8th 2007 En edderkopp med te?
by Words: 146 Photos: 2
- March 7th 2007 On the road agaın
by Words: 330 Photos: 1
- March 6th 2007 Bussetikette i Tyrkia
by Words: 789 Photos: 1
- October 1st 2006 Ver Goshkuyu
by Words: 934 Photos: 16
- June 23rd 2006 So long and thanks for all the kebab!!
by Words: 431 Photos: 0