Ukraine

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Ukraine was the centre of the first Slavic state, Kievan Rus', which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by quarrels between princes and Mongol invasions, Kievan Rus' was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kievan Rus' laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of Tsarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine was able to bring about a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two artificial famines called holodomor (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million Ukrainians died. During World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although final independence for Ukraine was achieved in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatisation, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest, the "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor Yushchenko. The new government, with Yuliya Tymoshenko as prime minister, presents its citizens with hope that the country may at last attain true freedom and prosperity. Acceptance into the European Union is an important, if very unlikely, priority, but Ukraine is still heavily reliant on Russia for its fuel supplies, and is therefore never likely to fully grow according to its own plans.

Highlights
• To be updated • Kyiv, Ukraine's capital • Historic Lviv • Crimea and the Black Sea • The Carpathian mountains • • • • •

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To be updated



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